Thursday, November 23, 2017

ALS New K to 12 Learning Strands

Below are the Learning Strands of Alternative Learning System learners based on the K to 12 Curriculum.

Please notice that an additional Learning Strand 6 - Digital Literacy is included which means that the next batch of A&E test takers will have exam questions concerning Information & Communication Technology (ICT).

ALS K to 12: Learning Strand 6 - Digital Literacy

Those Alternative Learning System (ALS) learners who have not taken the Accreditation & Equivalency (A&E) test on 19 or 26 November 2017 will have additional Learning Strand in their studies. Learning Strand 6 - Digital Literacy will be included in their modules in line with the K to 12 curriculum of regular students.

ALS learners are expected to demonstrate the following knowledge and skills after the completion of their studies and before the A&E test:
  1. knowledge of digital concepts and operations
  2. using the internet and digital system networs
  3. using Information & Communication Technology (ICT) and digital devices & applications in daily life
  4. practicing digital ethics
Aside from completing their modules, I believe that these new batch of ALS learners have to complete a Portfolio that demonstrates their acquired knowledge and skills. With the alignment of the ALS curriculum with the K to 12, it will only mean that the coming A&E examination will be full of substance and structure, more difficult in other words. However, graduates of ALS are expected to be more competitive and ready for the rigorous world of Senior High School and Higher Studies.
Good luck to the new batch of ALS learners, A&E and PEPT test takers!

Sunday, November 19, 2017

Facts About Earthquakes

The Science of Earthquakes
Originally written by Lisa Wald for “The Green Frog News”
(Copied from

What is an earthquake?

An earthquake is what happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. The surface where they slip is called the fault or fault plane. The location below the earth’s surface where the earthquake starts is called the hypocenter or focus, and the location directly above it on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter.

Sometimes an earthquake has foreshocks. These are smaller earthquakes that happen in the same place as the larger earthquake that follows. Scientists can’t tell that an earthquake is a foreshock until the larger earthquake happens. The largest, main earthquake is called themainshock. Mainshocks always have aftershocks that follow. These are smaller earthquakes that occur afterwards in the same place as the mainshock. Depending on the size of the mainshock, aftershocks can continue for weeks, months, and even years after the mainshock!

What causes earthquakes and where do they happen?

The earth has four major layers: the inner core, outer core, mantle and crust. (figure 2) The crust and the top of the mantle make up a thin skin on the surface of our planet. But this skin is not all in one piece – it is made up of many pieces like a puzzle covering the surface of the earth. (figure 3) Not only that, but these puzzle pieces keep slowly moving around, sliding past one another and bumping into each other. We call these puzzle pieces tectonic plates, and the edges of the plates are called the plate boundaries. The plate boundaries are made up of many faults, and most of the earthquakes around the world occur on these faults. Since the edges of the plates are rough, they get stuck while the rest of the plate keeps moving. Finally, when the plate has moved far enough, the edges unstick on one of the faults and there is an earthquake.

Why does the earth shake when there is an earthquake?

While the edges of faults are stuck together, and the rest of the block is moving, the energy that would normally cause the blocks to slide past one another is being stored up. When the force of the moving blocks finally overcomes the friction of the jagged edges of the fault and it unsticks, all that stored up energy is released. The energy radiates outward from the fault in all directions in the form of seismic waves like ripples on a pond. The seismic waves shake the earth as they move through it, and when the waves reach the earth’s surface, they shake the ground and anything on it, like our houses and us! (see P&S Wave inset)

How are earthquakes recorded?

Earthquakes are recorded by instruments called seismographs. The recording they make is called a seismogram. (figure 4) The seismograph has a base that sets firmly in the ground, and a heavy weight that hangs free. When an earthquake causes the ground to shake, the base of the seismograph shakes too, but the hanging weight does not. Instead the spring or string that it is hanging from absorbs all the movement. The difference in position between the shaking part of the seismograph and the motionless part is what is recorded.

How do scientists measure the size of earthquakes?

The size of an earthquake depends on the size of the fault and the amount of slip on the fault, but that’s not something scientists can simply measure with a measuring tape since faults are many kilometers deep beneath the earth’s surface. So how do they measure an earthquake? They use the seismogramrecordings made on the seismographs at the surface of the earth to determine how large the earthquake was (figure 5). A short wiggly line that doesn’t wiggle very much means a small earthquake, and a long wiggly line that wiggles a lot means a large earthquake. The length of the wiggle depends on the size of the fault, and the size of the wiggle depends on the amount of slip.

The size of the earthquake is called its magnitude. There is one magnitude for each earthquake. Scientists also talk about the intensity of shaking from an earthquake, and this varies depending on where you are during the earthquake.

How can scientists tell where the earthquake happened?

Seismograms come in handy for locating earthquakes too, and being able to see the P wave and the S wave is important. You learned how P & S waves each shake the ground in different ways as they travel through it. P waves are also faster than S waves, and this fact is what allows us to tell where an earthquake was. To understand how this works, let’s compare P and S waves to lightning and thunder. Light travels faster than sound, so during a thunderstorm you will first see the lightning and then you will hear the thunder. If you are close to the lightning, the thunder will boom right after the lightning, but if you are far away from the lightning, you can count several seconds before you hear the thunder. The further you are from the storm, the longer it will take between the lightning and the thunder.

P waves are like the lightning, and S waves are like the thunder. The P waves travel faster and shake the ground where you are first. Then the S waves follow and shake the ground also. If you are close to the earthquake, the P and S wave will come one right after the other, but if you are far away, there will be more time between the two. By looking at the amount of time between the P and S wave on a seismogram recorded on a seismograph, scientists can tell how far away the earthquake was from that location. However, they can’t tell in what direction from the seismograph the earthquake was, only how far away it was. If they draw a circle on a map around the station where the radius of the circle is the determined distance to the earthquake, they know the earthquake lies somewhere on the circle.

But where?

Scientists then use a method called triangulation to determine exactly where the earthquake was (figure 6). It is called triangulation because a triangle has three sides, and it takes three seismographs to locate an earthquake. If you draw a circle on a map around three different seismographs where the radius of each is the distance from that station to the earthquake, the intersection of those three circles is the epicenter!

Can scientists predict earthquakes?

No, and it is unlikely they will ever be able to predict them. Scientists have tried many different ways of predicting earthquakes, but none have been successful. On any particular fault, scientists know there will be another earthquake sometime in the future, but they have no way of telling when it will happen.

Is there such a thing as earthquake weather? Can some animals or people tell when an earthquake is about to hit?

These are two questions that do not yet have definite answers. If weather does affect earthquake occurrence, or if some animals or people can tell when an earthquake is coming, we do not yet understand how it works.

Friday, November 17, 2017


Regular Senior High School o ALS Senior High School?

Batid na natin na ang mga papasa sa A&E exam ngayong Nobyembre 2017 at ang mga susunod pang batch ay kailangang pumasok ng Senior High School kung may balak kumuha ng kurso sa Kolehiyo o Pamantasan. Nangangahulugan ba nito na kailangan nilang maging regular Senior High School students?

Ayon sa aking pagbabasa, hindi kailangang pumasok sa isang pormal na Senior High School ang mga papasa sa A&E sa taong ito at sa susunod pang mga taon. Ito ay sa kadahilanang MAGKAKAROON din ng ALS SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL! Magandang balita, di ba? Ibabase ang curriculum ng ALS SHS sa mga aralin ng regular na SHS ngunit sa paraang modules tulad ng dati kung saan di-pormal pa rin ang pagbibigay ng mga aralin. Makakapili rin kung anong TRACK ang nais ng mga mag-a ALS SHS. Kung nais magpatuloy ng kolehiyo at kukuha ng mga kursong nasa ibaba, ACADEMIC TRACK ang dapat kunin. Nasa ibaba ang halimbawa ng Academic Track.


Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM) Strand
Sample Scheduling of Subjects
Applied Economics
Business Ethics and Social Responsibility
Fundamentals of Accountancy, Business and Management 1
Fundamentals of Accountancy, Business and Management 2
Business Math
Business Finance
Organization and Management
Principles of Marketing
Work Immersion/Research/Career Advocacy/Culminating Activity i.e. Business Enterprise Simulation

Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Strand
Sample Scheduling of Subjects
Creative Writing / Malikhaing Pagsulat
Introduction to World Religions and Belief Systems
Creative Nonfiction
Trends, Networks, and Critical Thinking in the 21st Century Culture
Philippine Politics and Governance
Community Engagement, Solidarity, and Citizenship
Disciplines and Ideas in the Social Sciences
Disciplines and Ideas in the Applied Social Sciences
Work Immersion/Research/Career Advocacy/Culminating Activity

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Strand
Sample Scheduling of Subjects
Basic Calculus
General Biology 1
General Biology 2
General Physics 1
General Physics 2
General Chemistry 1 and 2
Work Immersion/Research/Career Advocacy/Culminating Activity

General Academic Strand
Humanities 1*
Humanities 2*
Social Science 1**
Applied Economics
Organization and Management
Disaster Readiness and Risk Reduction
Elective 1 (from any Track/Strand)***
Elective 2 (from any Track/Strand)***
Work Immersion/Research/Career Advocacy/Culminating Activity

Pre-Baccalaureate Maritime
Sample Scheduling of Subjects
Basic Calculus
General Physics 1
General Physics 2
General Chemistry 1
Introduction to Maritime Career
Introduction to Maritime Safety
Introduction to Marine Transportation and Engineering
Work Immersion/Research/Career Advocacy/Culminating Activity

*Select from HUMSS Strand Subjects 1 to 4.
**Select from HUMSS Strand Subjects 5 to 8.
***Schools must present/offer a range of subjects from which students can choose.

Ang iba pang track ay ang mga sumusunod:

2. TECHNOLOGY and LiIVELIHOOD EDUCATION (TLE) and TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL LIVELIHOOD (TVL) Track - ito ay para sa mga mag-aaral na nais matuto ng vocational and livelihood courses tulad ng welding, auto-mechanic, commercial cookery and baking, etc. Sila ay magpapatuloy sa pagkuha ng mga kurso sa TESDA kung saan sila ay kukuha ng kaukulang pagsusulit.

3. SPORTS TRACK - Ito ay sa mga mag-aaral na nahihilig sa pagpapalakas ng katawan at pagsali sa mga isports at palaro o sa mga nahihilig magturo kung paano mapanatili ang malusog na pangangatawan.

4. ARTS and DESIGN TRACK - para sa mga mag-aaral na mahilig sa sining tulad ng pagkanta, pagsasayaw, magpipinta, pag-ukit atbp,. o yaong mahilig sa pagdibuho at padisenyo ng mga kasuotan at iba pang materyal.

Kaya kung tama ang aking pag-aanalisa sa aking mga nababasa tungkol sa Alternative Learning System, malalaman din ninyo ito sa mga susunod na mga araw.

Sa ngayon ay magtuunan muna ninyo ang pagpasa sa pagsusulit sa 19 o 26 ng Nobyembre 2017. Kung nakapasa man kayo, alam kong babalikan nyo pa rin ang FB page kung nais ninyong pumasa sa SHS, pormal man o ALS.


Thursday, November 16, 2017

Sample Test on Set Theory

Sa mga sumasagot ng tanong sa ibaba, narito po ang solution at paliwanag:

Thirty five students went to the market. 27 of them bought mangoes and 32 bought bananas.

1. How many students bought mangoes only?
2. How many only bought bananas?
3. How many bought both mangoes and bananas?

Kapag ganito na ang birada ng tanong, dapat ay mag-assign agad tayo ng letter o representation para sa unknown.

Let       Z = number of students who bought mangoes and bananas

Let       27 – Z  = number of students who bought only mangoes

            Bakit ibabawas natin ang Z sa 27?

Para lumabas  ang mga students na bumili lamang ng mangga.

Let       32 – Z = number of students who bought only bananas

            Bakit ibabawas natin ang Z sa 32?

Para lumabas ang mga students na bumili lamang ng saging.

I-set up ang equation:

Z + (27-Z) + (32-Z) = 35

Bakit equals sa 35?

            Dahil 35 ang kabuuan ng mga mag-aaral.

Solve for Z:

Z + (27-Z) + (32-Z) = 35
-Z = 59 = 35
-Z = 35 – 59
-Z =  - 24

Multiply by (-1) to make the answer positive.

-1 x (-Z) = -1 X (-24)

Z = 24 ==> number of students who bought mangoes and bananas

27 – Z   = 27 – 24 = 3 ===> number of students who bought only mangoes

32 – Z = 32 – 24 = 8 ===> number of students who bought only bananas

24 + 3 + 8 = 35 ==> total number of students

Sana ay maunawaan at magamit sa test.

Tuesday, November 14, 2017


36. In a PRESENT unreal conditional sentence, the dependent clause is in the PAST TENSE and the main clause uses would, should, could, or might. The contracted forms ‘d and n’t are often used.
          If he went to bed earlier, he wouldn’t feel so tired.
          If I knew English better, I could read some English novels.

37. Dependent clauses of PRESENT unreal conditional sentences use the PAST TENSE forms of all verbs EXCEPT to be. To be uses WERE in ALL PERSONS in these clauses.

          I were   you were     we were        he were        she were       it were                    they were

          If today were Sunday, I would not have to work.
          If Peter were here, he would help us with this project.
          If I were a bird, I would fly to the mountains.

38. In a PAST unreal conditional sentence, the dependent clause is in the PAST PERFECT TENSE and the main clause uses would have, should have, could have, or might have Plus the PAST PARTICIPLE of the VERB. The contracted forms ‘d have and ‘ve are often used.

          If yesterday had been a holiday, I would have gone to the beach.
          If I had known that you needed me, I could have come at once.
          I wouldn’t have gotten wet if I had worn a raincoat.

39. When dependent clauses introduced by IF describe a FUTURE possible condition (See No. 35), they use the PRESENT TENSE. Similarly, when dependent clauses introduced by AS LONG AS, AS SOON AS, BEFORE, UNLESS, UNTIL, WHEN, and WHILE describe a FUTURE condition, they also use the PRESENT TENSE.

          When it rains, we will go inside.
          Don’t leave until I call you.
          Give her the bag as soon as you see her.

40. Wish usually suggests a situation that is unreal or contrary to fact. After wish – as in unreal conditional statements – use a PAST TENSE clause to suggest PRESENT action and a PAST PERFECT TENSE clause to suggest PAST action.

          I wish she were here now. (Present)
          Edna wishes that she had gone to the movie with you yesterday. (Past)
          I wish I could help you but I can’t.       

41. The expressions I wish you would and I wish you wouldn’t are used to express POLITE COMMANDS or REQUESTS.

          I wish you would stay here.
          I wish you wouldn’t go home.

43. In order to avoid repetition of earlier words or phrases, use too or so and an appropriate auxiliary verb in AFFIRMATIVE sentences.
          Maria wants to dance and Mary wants to dance.
                    Maria wants to dance and Mary does too.
                    Maria wants to dance and so does Mary.

          Bert was arrested and his assistant was arrested.
                    Bert was arrested and his assistant was too.
                    Bert was arrested and so was his assistant.

43. Use either and neither to avoid repetition in NEGATIVE sentences.

          He can’t swim and she can’t swim.
                    He can’t swim and she can’t either.
                    He can’t swim and neither can she.

          He doesn’t want to go and she doesn’t want to go.
                    He doesn’t want to go and she doesn’t either.
                    He doesn’t want to go and neither does she.

          Luis hadn’t seen the movie and I hadn’t seen the movie.
                    Luis hadn’t seen the movie and I hadn’t either.
                    Luis hadn’t seen the movie and neither had I.

44. In sentences describing two OPPOSITE situations, avoid repetition with but and an appropriate auxiliary.

          Jimsen can’t speak Ilocano. His brother speaks Ilocano.
                    Jimsen can’t speak Ilocano, but his brother can.

          She liked the cake. I didn’t like the cake.
                    She liked the cake, but  I didn’t.

45. NEGATIVE questions are usually formed by placing a contracted form of TO BE or an auxiliary verb and not BEFORE the subject. When a question word is used, it is placed BEFORE the contraction.

          He is here today.     Isn’t he here today?         Why isn’t he here today?
          Luisa saw them.      Didn’t Luisa see them?    Why didn’t Luisa see them?

46. Form subject questions by substituting who, what, or which for the subject of a sentence or for the modifiers of the subject.

          Rebecca lives here.           Who lives here?
          February comes before March.    Which month comes before February?
          His carelessness caused the fire.           What caused the fire?

47. To emphasize a NOUN, use what or what a and exclamation point (!).
          It’s a sunny day.      What a sunny day! 

48. To emphasize an ADJECTIVE or ADVERB in a sentence, use how and an Exclamation point (!)
          Norman plays golf well.      How well Norman plays golf!
          He is tall.                          How tall he is!
          Tita looks very old.            How old Tita looks!

49. In everyday conversation, AVOID BEGINNING a question with a preposition. Put the preposition at the END of the sentence.

          What are they talking about?                 What are they going to use the money for?
          Which magazine do you want to look at?  Which room do you have your lesson in?

50. RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES identify or define the antecedent noun. They ARE NOT parenthetical and ARE NOT set off by COMMAS.

          Any boy who is clever passes all his exams.
          The place where we live is a beautiful city.
          We heard a noise that resembled the cry of an injured animal.


1. Advice is a NOUN. Advise is a VERB.

          The counselor advised me to take a writing course; I’ll follow her advice.

2. As far as refers to DISTANCE; until refers to TIME.

          Homer walked as far as the corner. Totoy said he could stay only until six o’clock.

3. One beats teams or opponents; one wins games.

          Laura won the dancing competition by beating Karen in the finals.

4. Do versus Make . The differences between these verbs are idiomatic. Both have the meaning to accomplish or to perform. Note these uses:

          This morning I made the bed and then made breakfast. Afterwards, I did the dishes. I always do the housework before I do my exercises. I made a phone call, but I made a mistake when I dialed.

5. In suggests POSITION within a certain SPACE; into suggests ACTION toward a certain POINT.

          I make sure there was water in the pool before I dived into it.

6. One steals an OBJECT; one robs a PERSON or THING.
          The robbed the bank and then stole a car to get away.

7. Spill suggests an ACCIDENT or UNITENTIONAL action; pour suggests an INTENTIONAL one.

          As I was pouring my tea into my cup, I spilled some on the floor.

8. Beside means NEXT TO; besides means IN ADDITION TO.

          Besides me, three others went on the trip. I sat beside Bart on the bus.

9. Few is used only with PLURAL COUNTABLE nouns. Less is used only with NONCOUNTABLE  nouns.

          few books               few pencils             less sugar     less time

10. One can leave SOMETHING in a particular PLACE, but one CANNOT forget something in a particular place.

          I have forgotten my book. I left it at home.

(Wrong: I have forgotten my book at home.)

11. Very means much or to a large degree. Too always suggests something in excess, more of something than we need or can use. Too is often followed by an INFINITIVE construction.

          This book is very big, but it will go into my pocket.
          This book is too big to go into my pocket.

12. One borrows something FROM someone or something; one lends something TO someone or something. (Loan is a synonym for lend.)

          Lend me your pen, please; I only want to borrow it for a minute.

13. Speak is used with languages, greetings, and in formal settings. Talk refers to a conversation and is often followed by an INDIRECT OBJECT with TO.

          Jane speaks Portuguese; she will speak to our group tonight.
          Don’t talk during the film. If you want to talk to me, wait until it’s over.

14. Learn means “to gain knowledge”; teach means “to instruct someone else.”

          I learned French last year; now I’ll teach it to you.

15. We use the SINGULAR form of such words as foot, dollar, year, etc., when such words are used as ADJECTIVES; we use the PLURAL form when such words are used alone as NOUNS.

          He signed a five-year contract.

          This contract runs for five years.