Tuesday, November 14, 2017


36. In a PRESENT unreal conditional sentence, the dependent clause is in the PAST TENSE and the main clause uses would, should, could, or might. The contracted forms ‘d and n’t are often used.
          If he went to bed earlier, he wouldn’t feel so tired.
          If I knew English better, I could read some English novels.

37. Dependent clauses of PRESENT unreal conditional sentences use the PAST TENSE forms of all verbs EXCEPT to be. To be uses WERE in ALL PERSONS in these clauses.

          I were   you were     we were        he were        she were       it were                    they were

          If today were Sunday, I would not have to work.
          If Peter were here, he would help us with this project.
          If I were a bird, I would fly to the mountains.

38. In a PAST unreal conditional sentence, the dependent clause is in the PAST PERFECT TENSE and the main clause uses would have, should have, could have, or might have Plus the PAST PARTICIPLE of the VERB. The contracted forms ‘d have and ‘ve are often used.

          If yesterday had been a holiday, I would have gone to the beach.
          If I had known that you needed me, I could have come at once.
          I wouldn’t have gotten wet if I had worn a raincoat.

39. When dependent clauses introduced by IF describe a FUTURE possible condition (See No. 35), they use the PRESENT TENSE. Similarly, when dependent clauses introduced by AS LONG AS, AS SOON AS, BEFORE, UNLESS, UNTIL, WHEN, and WHILE describe a FUTURE condition, they also use the PRESENT TENSE.

          When it rains, we will go inside.
          Don’t leave until I call you.
          Give her the bag as soon as you see her.

40. Wish usually suggests a situation that is unreal or contrary to fact. After wish – as in unreal conditional statements – use a PAST TENSE clause to suggest PRESENT action and a PAST PERFECT TENSE clause to suggest PAST action.

          I wish she were here now. (Present)
          Edna wishes that she had gone to the movie with you yesterday. (Past)
          I wish I could help you but I can’t.       

41. The expressions I wish you would and I wish you wouldn’t are used to express POLITE COMMANDS or REQUESTS.

          I wish you would stay here.
          I wish you wouldn’t go home.

43. In order to avoid repetition of earlier words or phrases, use too or so and an appropriate auxiliary verb in AFFIRMATIVE sentences.
          Maria wants to dance and Mary wants to dance.
                    Maria wants to dance and Mary does too.
                    Maria wants to dance and so does Mary.

          Bert was arrested and his assistant was arrested.
                    Bert was arrested and his assistant was too.
                    Bert was arrested and so was his assistant.

43. Use either and neither to avoid repetition in NEGATIVE sentences.

          He can’t swim and she can’t swim.
                    He can’t swim and she can’t either.
                    He can’t swim and neither can she.

          He doesn’t want to go and she doesn’t want to go.
                    He doesn’t want to go and she doesn’t either.
                    He doesn’t want to go and neither does she.

          Luis hadn’t seen the movie and I hadn’t seen the movie.
                    Luis hadn’t seen the movie and I hadn’t either.
                    Luis hadn’t seen the movie and neither had I.

44. In sentences describing two OPPOSITE situations, avoid repetition with but and an appropriate auxiliary.

          Jimsen can’t speak Ilocano. His brother speaks Ilocano.
                    Jimsen can’t speak Ilocano, but his brother can.

          She liked the cake. I didn’t like the cake.
                    She liked the cake, but  I didn’t.

45. NEGATIVE questions are usually formed by placing a contracted form of TO BE or an auxiliary verb and not BEFORE the subject. When a question word is used, it is placed BEFORE the contraction.

          He is here today.     Isn’t he here today?         Why isn’t he here today?
          Luisa saw them.      Didn’t Luisa see them?    Why didn’t Luisa see them?

46. Form subject questions by substituting who, what, or which for the subject of a sentence or for the modifiers of the subject.

          Rebecca lives here.           Who lives here?
          February comes before March.    Which month comes before February?
          His carelessness caused the fire.           What caused the fire?

47. To emphasize a NOUN, use what or what a and exclamation point (!).
          It’s a sunny day.      What a sunny day! 

48. To emphasize an ADJECTIVE or ADVERB in a sentence, use how and an Exclamation point (!)
          Norman plays golf well.      How well Norman plays golf!
          He is tall.                          How tall he is!
          Tita looks very old.            How old Tita looks!

49. In everyday conversation, AVOID BEGINNING a question with a preposition. Put the preposition at the END of the sentence.

          What are they talking about?                 What are they going to use the money for?
          Which magazine do you want to look at?  Which room do you have your lesson in?

50. RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES identify or define the antecedent noun. They ARE NOT parenthetical and ARE NOT set off by COMMAS.

          Any boy who is clever passes all his exams.
          The place where we live is a beautiful city.
          We heard a noise that resembled the cry of an injured animal.


1. Advice is a NOUN. Advise is a VERB.

          The counselor advised me to take a writing course; I’ll follow her advice.

2. As far as refers to DISTANCE; until refers to TIME.

          Homer walked as far as the corner. Totoy said he could stay only until six o’clock.

3. One beats teams or opponents; one wins games.

          Laura won the dancing competition by beating Karen in the finals.

4. Do versus Make . The differences between these verbs are idiomatic. Both have the meaning to accomplish or to perform. Note these uses:

          This morning I made the bed and then made breakfast. Afterwards, I did the dishes. I always do the housework before I do my exercises. I made a phone call, but I made a mistake when I dialed.

5. In suggests POSITION within a certain SPACE; into suggests ACTION toward a certain POINT.

          I make sure there was water in the pool before I dived into it.

6. One steals an OBJECT; one robs a PERSON or THING.
          The robbed the bank and then stole a car to get away.

7. Spill suggests an ACCIDENT or UNITENTIONAL action; pour suggests an INTENTIONAL one.

          As I was pouring my tea into my cup, I spilled some on the floor.

8. Beside means NEXT TO; besides means IN ADDITION TO.

          Besides me, three others went on the trip. I sat beside Bart on the bus.

9. Few is used only with PLURAL COUNTABLE nouns. Less is used only with NONCOUNTABLE  nouns.

          few books               few pencils             less sugar     less time

10. One can leave SOMETHING in a particular PLACE, but one CANNOT forget something in a particular place.

          I have forgotten my book. I left it at home.

(Wrong: I have forgotten my book at home.)

11. Very means much or to a large degree. Too always suggests something in excess, more of something than we need or can use. Too is often followed by an INFINITIVE construction.

          This book is very big, but it will go into my pocket.
          This book is too big to go into my pocket.

12. One borrows something FROM someone or something; one lends something TO someone or something. (Loan is a synonym for lend.)

          Lend me your pen, please; I only want to borrow it for a minute.

13. Speak is used with languages, greetings, and in formal settings. Talk refers to a conversation and is often followed by an INDIRECT OBJECT with TO.

          Jane speaks Portuguese; she will speak to our group tonight.
          Don’t talk during the film. If you want to talk to me, wait until it’s over.

14. Learn means “to gain knowledge”; teach means “to instruct someone else.”

          I learned French last year; now I’ll teach it to you.

15. We use the SINGULAR form of such words as foot, dollar, year, etc., when such words are used as ADJECTIVES; we use the PLURAL form when such words are used alone as NOUNS.

          He signed a five-year contract.

          This contract runs for five years.

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