Monday, November 13, 2017



1. When a noun does not end in s, fom the singular and sometimes the plural possessive by adding an apostrope s (‘s).

          the boy = the boy’s hat                the children = the children’s toys

2. When a noun already ends in s, form the singular possessive by adding an apostrophe s (‘s) and form the plural possessive by adding only an apostrophe (‘).

          the boss = the boss’s car             the boys = the boys’ hats
          Charles = Charles’s pen               the ladies = the ladies’ umbrellas

3. This indicates that something is near us: that indicates that it is  at a distance.
          This pencil is in my hand. That book is over there on the table.
          The plural of this is these; the plural of that is those.

          These pencils are in my hand.      Those books are over there on the table.

4. Adjectives modify nouns.
          Examples:     a big animal            an open window      a red apple  

5. Adverbs modify verbs. They tell us how we do something.
          Examples:     John speaks slowly.         The birds sing beautifully.

6. We can form many adverbs by adding ly to an adjective.
          Examples:     soft     =        softly           easy   =        easily     
7. We can use a few words like fast, hard, late, and low as either adjectives or adverbs without any changes in form.

          Examples:     Marie is a hard worker. ( as  an adjective)
                              Marie works hard. (as an adverb)

8. Good is an adjective and must modify a noun.
          Example:      James is a good singer.

9. Well is usually used as an adverb.
          Example:      Tom speaks well.

  Well is occasionally used as an adjective only when it means to be in good health.
          Example:      Amanda was ill, but now she is well.

10. Who refers to PEOPLE. Which refers to SPECIFIC animals or things. That refers to animals, things as a CLASS. The object (direct or indirect) form of who is whom. Which and that both have the same form whether subject or object.

          a. Was it Gino who said that?
          b. This is the report that the president wanted.
          c. The motorcycle which Harry used belongs to her brother.
          d. To whom did you give the pizza?
          e. The native inhabitants that lived in Batanes were called Ivatans.
          f. It is the little things in life that count.

11. A and an are indefinite articles. They refer to objects that have not been specifically identified. A or an is used only with singular nouns.

          a. A magazine is on the chair.
          b. Do you have a cigarette?
          c. Irma bought an umbrella.

12. The is a definite article. It refers to a PARTICULAR object. It is used with both singular and plural nouns.

          a. The book which gave me the greatest pleasure was Huckleberry Finn.
          b. The new books which I bought yesterday in National Book Store arrived this morning.

13. Much is used with nouns that cannot be counted and do not add s to show plurality.
          Examples:     much sugar            much rain               much coffee

14. Many is used with plural countable nouns.
          Examples:     many balloons        many cups of tea    many students

15. A lot of is the most commonly used term of these three.
          a lot of sugar                    a lot of books                   a lot of love

16. Also and too change to EITHER in NEGATIVE sentences.
          I want to dance too. I don’t want to dance either.
          We also want this pencil.   We don’t want this pencil either.

17. Use any in NEGATIVE sentences; use some in AFFIRMATIVE sentences.
          Maribel took some vegetables home with her.
          Manolo does not take any books home with him.

18. Use anybody, anyone, anything, and anywhere in NEGATIVE sentences.
          There isn’t anyone at the door.    Bobby didn’t go anywhere with his boss last night.
          They did not hear anything in the dark.

19. Use somebody, someone, something, and somewhere in AFFIRMATIVE sentences.
          She knows something about the plan.   Tim lost his watch somewhere downtown.
          There is someone at the kitchen.

20. For shows the LENGTH of TIME of the action.
          Mary has worked in SM for five months. Joan has not eaten anything for two days.

21. Since shows the TIME that the action BEGAN.
          Nancy has been absent since Monday.  It has been raining since last night.

22. Yet means so far; it is used in NEGATIVES and questions.
          Sean hasn’t arrived yet.     Are we there yet?

23. Already means by this time or previously; it is used in AFFIRMATIVE statements and questions.
          The plane has already left the airport.    Has John gotten his new suit already?

24. If the MAIN VERB of a sentence is in the PAST TENSE, ALL other dependent verbs are usually in the PAST TENSE too.

          The students say they will bring their projects tomorrow.
          The students said they would bring their projects tomorrow.
          The meteorologist predicts that it may snow on Monday.
          The meteorologist predicted that it might snow on Monday.

Note the irregular past tense forms of the following auxiliaries:
          will      =        would                      can     =        could
          may    =        might                      have   =        had

25. Have to and must express necessity or strong obligations. Have to is the more commonly used term.

          You must study your lesson.        You have to study your lesson.
          Rolly must work tonight.              Rolly has to work tonight.

26. Must has no past or future tense forms. Use have to to expess obligation or necessity in the past, future, and present perfect tenses.

          I have to attend the meeting.
          I had to attend the meeting.
          I will have to attend the meeting tomorrow.
          I have had to attend the meeting  every day this week.

27. Would rather followed by the simple form of the verb means to prefer. Note the position and use of than.

          I would rather drive a small car than a big one.
          I would rather live in a small town.
          Edgard would rather read a book than see a movie.

28. Had better with the simple form of the verb means it would be better or it would be advisable. Note that this term expresses a FUTURE thought even though it is in a PAST FORM.
          You had better rest a while.                  They had better come back later.

29. Place adverbs of time (yesterday, last week, next month, etc.) at the BEGINNING  or END of a sentence.
          We saw Mr. Santos yesterday.              On Thursday you are due in court.

30. Place adverbs of frequency (often, usually, generally, rarely, ever, etc.) BEFORE the MAIN VERB except when the main verb is a form of TO BE.

          She always comes to class early.                    Does he always come to class late?
          They are never late for class.      He has always prepared his lessons.

31. Word order is very important in English sentences. The normal word order for an English statement is SUBJECT, VERB, INDIRECT OBJECT, DIRECT OBJECT, ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS.

          Be careful not to separate a verb and its direct object with an adverbial modifier.

          Wrong:         I saw yesterday my friend.
          Correct:        I saw my friend yesterday.

          Wrong;         He is studying now Spanish at Madrid University.
          Correct:        He is now studying Spanish at Madrid University.

          Wrong:         She said that he had had already three drinks.
          Correct:        She said that he had already had three drinks.

32. Still means even up to the present time. It indicates some continuing action. Still usually comes BEFORE the MAIN verb.

          They are still working in that company.
          He still attends the same church.

33. Anymore indicates that an action that went on in the past has been discontinued. We usually place anymore at the END of a NEGATIVE sentence.

          He isn’t working in that agency anymore.
          We never see you at the school dances anymore.

34. Form the PAST tense of should and ought to with have and the past participle of the main verb.

          Present:        You should study more.
          Past:            You should have studied more.

          Present:        They ought to finish their projects.
          Past:            They ought to have finished their projects.

35. A conditional sentence has two clauses, a DEPENDENT CLAUSE beginning with IF and a MAIN CLAUSE.
          In a FUTURE possible conditional sentence, the dependent clause is in the PRESENT TENSE and the MAIN CLAUSE is in the FUTURE tense.

          If I have enough money, I will fly to Boracay.

          If you don’t hurry, we will be late for class.

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